Developed from real patient case study specimens, the 3D printed anatomy model pathology series introduces an unmatched level of realism in human anatomy models. Each 3D printed anatomy model is a high-fidelity replica of a human cadaveric specimen, focusing on the key morbidity presentations that led to the deceasement of the patient. With advances in 3D printing materials and techniques, these stories can come to life in an ethical, consistently reproduceable, and easy to handle format. Ideal for the most advanced anatomical and pathological study, and backed by authentic case study details, students, instructors, and experts alike will discover a new level of anatomical study with the 3D printed anatomy model pathology series.
Clinical History (pre access to CT and MRI imaging)
This 51-year old woman had surgery for breast carcinoma 2 years before presentation. Her main complaint was left-sided ataxia for the 2 weeks prior, and this had been preceded by a fainting attack followed by left-sided weakness. Examination revealed a left spastic paresis. There was doubt as to the diagnosis because the rapidity of onset suggested a vascular lesion. She was discharged from hospital but six weeks after her initial presentation she was re-admitted with left-sided fitting. Lumber puncture and re-examination were not informative. EEG showed a right anterior temporal abnormality. Angiography confirmed the presence of a large space-occupying lesion in the right cerebrum. On the ward, there was a steady deterioration of the patient's condition, and ultimately death.
The specimen is the cerebrum sliced horizontally. On the superior view, the right hemisphere is clearly enlarged, particularly in the parietal region where the gyrae are widened and 3 cystic tumors are evident. The largest, 5 cm in diameter, is in the right parietal region. A smaller tumor, 2 x 1.5 cm in diameter, is seen close to the posterior margin of the largest tumor. A third one, 1.5 cm in diameter, is present in the left parietal region. The tumors have mainly involved white matter. The wall of each lesion is composed of shaggy friable greyish tissue. At necropsy, there was ulceration of the largest tumor into the right lateral ventricle (seen more clearly when the inferior surface is examined). Sub-falcine herniation was also seen, as is displacement of the basal ganglia and internal capsule. Histological examination revealed metastatic carcinoma in the viable areas. Other metastases were found in the liver and bone. Histology of a liver metastasis was consistent with origin from a primary carcinoma of breast.
Advantages of 3D Printed Anatomical Models
- 3D printed anatomical models are the most anatomically accurate examples of human anatomy because they are based on real human specimens.
- Avoid the ethical complications and complex handling, storage, and documentation requirements with 3D printed models when compared to human cadaveric specimens.
- 3D printed anatomy models are far less expensive than real human cadaveric specimens.
- Reproducibility and consistency allow for standardization of education and faster availability of models when you need them.
- Customization options are available for specific applications or educational needs. Enlargement, highlighting of specific anatomical structures, cutaway views, and more are just some of the customizations available.
Disadvantages of Human Cadavers
- Access to cadavers can be problematic and ethical complications are hard to avoid. Many countries cannot access cadavers for cultural and religious reasons.
- Human cadavers are costly to procure and require expensive storage facilities and dedicated staff to maintain them. Maintenance of the facility alone is costly.
- The cost to develop a cadaver lab or plastination technique is extremely high. Those funds could purchase hundreds of easy to handle, realistic 3D printed anatomical replicas.
- Wet specimens cannot be used in uncertified labs. Certification is expensive and time-consuming.
- Exposure to preservation fluids and chemicals is known to cause long-term health problems for lab workers and students. 3D printed anatomical replicas are safe to handle without any special equipment.
- Lack of reuse and reproducibility. If a dissection mistake is made, a new specimen has to be used and students have to start all over again.
Disadvantages of Plastinated Specimens
- Like real human cadaveric specimens, plastinated models are extremely expensive.
- Plastinated specimens still require real human samples and pose the same ethical issues as real human cadavers.
- The plastination process is extensive and takes months or longer to complete. 3D printed human anatomical models are available in a fraction of the time.
- Plastinated models, like human cadavers, are one of a kind and can only showcase one presentation of human anatomy.
Advanced 3D Printing Techniques for Superior Results
- Vibrant color offering with 10 million colors
- UV-curable inkjet printing
- High quality 3D printing that can create products that are delicate, extremely precise, and incredibly realistic
- To improve durability of fragile, thin, and delicate arteries, veins or vessels, a clear support material is printed in key areas. This makes the models robust so they can be handled by students easily.