At the forefront of medicine and technology, we are proud to offer these incredible, uncompromised replicas of human anatomy. Using the latest 3D printing technology and materials available, this model is an exact replica of a human cadaver, brought to "life" by extensive medical scanning and manufacturing technologies. Over are the days of using ethically questionable cadavers, the mess of hazardous preservation chemicals, and the inaccuracies of plastinated models that often over-enhance anatomy for display, not realism. See the future, and the beauty, of real human anatomy with these incredible anatomical replicas!
This 3D printed specimen preserves a dissection of the right thoracic wall, axilla, and the root of the neck. The specimen is cut just parasagittally and the visceral contents of the chest have been removed. Structures within the right chest wall are visible deep to the parietal pleura, including the ribs, muscles of the intercostal spaces and the origins of the neurovascular bundle in each intercostal space. The pectoralis major has been reflected medially towards the sectioned edge of the specimen to expose pectoralis minor which acts as a useful landmark as it divides the axillary artery into its three parts. The clavicle has had its middle 1/3 removed, but the subclavius muscle has been retained. The brachial plexus and many of its branches are seen almost in its entirety from the roots of C5-T1 to its termination as it exits the axilla to enter the arm. Of the structures preserved on the specimen:
Nerves: The medial pectoral nerves can be seen penetrating pectoralis minor, while the lateral pectoral nerve can be identified on the medial upper border of the pectoralis minor (one branch of which is reflected with the transected humeral portion of the pectoralis major). The cords of the brachial plexus can be identified around the 2nd part of the axillary artery. The major terminal nerves of the plexus (musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, radial and axillary nerves ) are all identifiable. The long thoracic nerve is visible lying on the surface of serratus anterior, as is the thoracodorsal nerve alongside the thoracodorsal artery as they descend to enter the latissimus dorsi muscle. The dorsal scapular nerve and artery are visible above and below omohyoid. The axillary nerve accompanied by the posterior circumflex humeral artery can be seen passing posteriorly just below the neck of the humerus.
In the root of the neck the phrenic nerve is just visible as it passes on the anterior surface of scalenus anterior muscle from its lateral border to its medial border and a thin accessory phrenic nerve is identifiable.
Vessels: Some of the branches of the subclavian artery (e.g., the transverse cervical and suprascapular arteries passing transversely across the root of the neck) can be clearly seen, however the subclavian artery itself is partly hidden from view as it crosses the first rib behind the insertion of scalenus anterior muscle. Most of the deep veins have been removed to expose branches of the three parts of the axillary artery, including the thoracoacromial artery and its branches, the lateral thoracic artery, thoracodorsal artery and the anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries. While the deep veins have been removed the cephalic vein can be seen ascending superficially in the deltopectoral groove into the dectopectoral triangle where it passes through the clavipectoral fascia.
Muscles: The digitations of the serratus anterior muscle are clearly visible on the lateral chest wall. As mentioned above, the pectoralis major muscle is reflected to reveal the pectoralis minor which together form the anterior wall of the axilla. Posteriorly the large fan shaped latissimus dorsi is the most obvious muscle along with the teres major. When viewed posteriorly a few vertical fibers of trapezius can be seen, as can some descending fibers of the lower part of rhomboid major attaching to the medial border of the scapula. Below this the triangle of auscultation is clearly visible. The infraspinatus and teres minor muscles are also visible arising from the infraspinous fossa and lateral border of the scapula respectively. The triceps brachii muscle can be seen in the extensor compartment of the arm.
In the root of the neck the insertion of sternocleidomastoid is visible medially and the trapezius is visible posteriorly. In the floor of the posterior triangle the scalene muscles are visible as is the omohyoid as it lies obliquely in the triangle.
Please Note: Thanks to the flexibility of manufacturing that 3D Printing offers, this model is "printed to order", and is not typically available for immediate shipment. Most models are printed within 15 working days and arrive within 3-5 weeks of ordering, and once an order is submitted to us, it cannot be canceled or altered. Please contact us if you have specific a specific delivery date requirement, and we will do our best to deliver the model by your target date.
Advantages of 3D Printed Anatomical Models
- 3D printed anatomical models are the most anatomically accurate examples of human anatomy because they are based on real human specimens.
- Avoid the ethical complications and complex handling, storage, and documentation requirements with 3D printed models when compared to human cadaveric specimens.
- 3D printed anatomy models are far less expensive than real human cadaveric specimens.
- Reproducibility and consistency allow for standardization of education and faster availability of models when you need them.
- Customization options are available for specific applications or educational needs. Enlargement, highlighting of specific anatomical structures, cutaway views, and more are just some of the customizations available.
Disadvantages of Human Cadavers
- Access to cadavers can be problematic and ethical complications are hard to avoid. Many countries cannot access cadavers for cultural and religious reasons.
- Human cadavers are costly to procure and require expensive storage facilities and dedicated staff to maintain them. Maintenance of the facility alone is costly.
- The cost to develop a cadaver lab or plastination technique is extremely high. Those funds could purchase hundreds of easy to handle, realistic 3D printed anatomical replicas.
- Wet specimens cannot be used in uncertified labs. Certification is expensive and time-consuming.
- Exposure to preservation fluids and chemicals is known to cause long-term health problems for lab workers and students. 3D printed anatomical replicas are safe to handle without any special equipment.
- Lack of reuse and reproducibility. If a dissection mistake is made, a new specimen has to be used and students have to start all over again.
Disadvantages of Plastinated Specimens
- Like real human cadaveric specimens, plastinated models are extremely expensive.
- Plastinated specimens still require real human samples and pose the same ethical issues as real human cadavers.
- The plastination process is extensive and takes months or longer to complete. 3D printed human anatomical models are available in a fraction of the time.
- Plastinated models, like human cadavers, are one of a kind and can only showcase one presentation of human anatomy.
Advanced 3D Printing Techniques for Superior Results
- Vibrant color offering with 10 million colors
- UV-curable inkjet printing
- High quality 3D printing that can create products that are delicate, extremely precise, and incredibly realistic
- To improve durability of fragile, thin, and delicate arteries, veins or vessels, a clear support material is printed in key areas. This makes the models robust so they can be handled by students easily.