Developed from real patient case study specimens, the 3D printed anatomy model pathology series introduces an unmatched level of realism in human anatomy models. Each 3D printed anatomy model is a high-fidelity replica of a human cadaveric specimen, focusing on the key morbidity presentations that led to the deceasement of the patient. With advances in 3D printing materials and techniques, these stories can come to life in an ethical, consistently reproduceable, and easy to handle format. Ideal for the most advanced anatomical and pathological study, and backed by authentic case study details, students, instructors, and experts alike will discover a new level of anatomical study with the 3D printed anatomy model pathology series.
No clinical details are available for this specimen.
The heart displays both ventricles from the posterior aspect. There is a prominent saccular dilatation of the thoracic ascending aorta, which shows several atherosclerotic plaques and posteriorly is seen to be ruptured (identified by the dark staining). Both ventricles are hypertrophied. The coronary arteries together with the aortic and tricuspid valves are normal. This is an example of a ruptured aneurysm of the ascending aorta.
The dilation of the ascending aorta is a common incidental finding on transthoracic echocardiography performed for unrelated indications.
The thoracic aorta is divided into 3 parts: ascending, arch and descending. The ascending aorta originates beyond the aortic valve and ends right before the innominate artery (brachiocephalic trunk). It is approximately 5 cm long and is composed of two distinct segments. The lower segment, known as the aortic root, encompasses the coronary sinuses and sinotubular junction (STJ). The upper segment, known as the tubular ascending aorta, begins at the STJ and extends to the aortic arch (innominate artery). More than 50% of thoracic aortic aneurysms are localized to the ascending aorta, which may affect either the aortic root or tubular aortic segment.
An aneurysm is defined as a localized dilation of the aorta that is more than 50% of predicted (ratio of observed to expected diameter = 1.5). Aneurysm should be distinguished from ectasia, which represents a diffuse dilation of the aorta less than 50% of normal aorta diameter. The incidence of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms is estimated to be around 10 per 100,000 person-years.
1. Saliba et al. (2015). Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc. 6
Advantages of 3D Printed Anatomical Models
- 3D printed anatomical models are the most anatomically accurate examples of human anatomy because they are based on real human specimens.
- Avoid the ethical complications and complex handling, storage, and documentation requirements with 3D printed models when compared to human cadaveric specimens.
- 3D printed anatomy models are far less expensive than real human cadaveric specimens.
- Reproducibility and consistency allow for standardization of education and faster availability of models when you need them.
- Customization options are available for specific applications or educational needs. Enlargement, highlighting of specific anatomical structures, cutaway views, and more are just some of the customizations available.
Disadvantages of Human Cadavers
- Access to cadavers can be problematic and ethical complications are hard to avoid. Many countries cannot access cadavers for cultural and religious reasons.
- Human cadavers are costly to procure and require expensive storage facilities and dedicated staff to maintain them. Maintenance of the facility alone is costly.
- The cost to develop a cadaver lab or plastination technique is extremely high. Those funds could purchase hundreds of easy to handle, realistic 3D printed anatomical replicas.
- Wet specimens cannot be used in uncertified labs. Certification is expensive and time-consuming.
- Exposure to preservation fluids and chemicals is known to cause long-term health problems for lab workers and students. 3D printed anatomical replicas are safe to handle without any special equipment.
- Lack of reuse and reproducibility. If a dissection mistake is made, a new specimen has to be used and students have to start all over again.
Disadvantages of Plastinated Specimens
- Like real human cadaveric specimens, plastinated models are extremely expensive.
- Plastinated specimens still require real human samples and pose the same ethical issues as real human cadavers.
- The plastination process is extensive and takes months or longer to complete. 3D printed human anatomical models are available in a fraction of the time.
- Plastinated models, like human cadavers, are one of a kind and can only showcase one presentation of human anatomy.
Advanced 3D Printing Techniques for Superior Results
- Vibrant color offering with 10 million colors
- UV-curable inkjet printing
- High quality 3D printing that can create products that are delicate, extremely precise, and incredibly realistic
- To improve durability of fragile, thin, and delicate arteries, veins or vessels, a clear support material is printed in key areas. This makes the models robust so they can be handled by students easily.