This 3D model preserves a right male pelvis sectioned just superior to the L5 vertebra and sectioned at the midsagittal plane, with the thigh preserved to near the midshaft of the femur. This specimen compliments our LW 91 female hemipelvis specimen and thigh.
The common iliac artery is preserved with several key branches visible, particularly the distribution of the internal iliac within the true pelvis. Several major vessels including the obturator artery and the partially obliterated umbilical artery passes towards the anterior abdominal wall (to form the medial umbilical ligament) and gives off the superior vesicle artery; while the roots of the iliolumbar, superior gluteal, inferior gluteal and internal pudendal artery are visible lateral to the urinary bladder. The ureter descends superficial to these vessels to approach the urinary bladder which is covered with peritoneum in this model. The ductus deferens is exposed from the entry into the space via the deep inguinal ring and passing posteriorly (though sectioned from its normal insertion pathway and resting on the internal iliac artery). Adjacent to the ureter and on the superficial surface of the psoas major muscle is an enlarged iliac lymph node and part of the lymphatic vasculature ascending along the external iliac artery. The majority of the pelvis has been left undissected, allowing for an appreciation of the rectovesical pouch and the exposed superior rectal artery and vein approaching the preserved portion of rectum. In cross section, the rectum, seminal vesicle and prostate are visible (the section plane preserves parts of both the prostatic urethra and ejaculatory duct).
In the anterior thigh the borders and contents of the femoral triangle are well-preserved, with partial coverage by the flap of the anterior abdominal wall. Posteriorly the skin over the gluteal region and the gluteus maximus muscle have been removed as sequential windows to expose the gluteus medius and minimum muscles, the piriformis, the obturator internus with gemelli muscles, and the quadratus femoris muscle. The superior and inferior gluteal arteries are maintained superior and inferior to the piriformis, respectively; with the sciatic nerve exiting inferior to piriformis before passing deep to the retained portion of the gluteus maximus.
Advantages of 3D Printed Anatomical Models
- 3D printed anatomical models are the most anatomically accurate examples of human anatomy because they are based on real human specimens.
- Avoid the ethical complications and complex handling, storage, and documentation requirements with 3D printed models when compared to human cadaveric specimens.
- 3D printed anatomy models are far less expensive than real human cadaveric specimens.
- Reproducibility and consistency allow for standardization of education and faster availability of models when you need them.
- Customization options are available for specific applications or educational needs. Enlargement, highlighting of specific anatomical structures, cutaway views, and more are just some of the customizations available.
Disadvantages of Human Cadavers
- Access to cadavers can be problematic and ethical complications are hard to avoid. Many countries cannot access cadavers for cultural and religious reasons.
- Human cadavers are costly to procure and require expensive storage facilities and dedicated staff to maintain them. Maintenance of the facility alone is costly.
- The cost to develop a cadaver lab or plastination technique is extremely high. Those funds could purchase hundreds of easy to handle, realistic 3D printed anatomical replicas.
- Wet specimens cannot be used in uncertified labs. Certification is expensive and time-consuming.
- Exposure to preservation fluids and chemicals is known to cause long-term health problems for lab workers and students. 3D printed anatomical replicas are safe to handle without any special equipment.
- Lack of reuse and reproducibility. If a dissection mistake is made, a new specimen has to be used and students have to start all over again.
Disadvantages of Plastinated Specimens
- Like real human cadaveric specimens, plastinated models are extremely expensive.
- Plastinated specimens still require real human samples and pose the same ethical issues as real human cadavers.
- The plastination process is extensive and takes months or longer to complete. 3D printed human anatomical models are available in a fraction of the time.
- Plastinated models, like human cadavers, are one of a kind and can only showcase one presentation of human anatomy.
Advanced 3D Printing Techniques for Superior Results
- Vibrant color offering with 10 million colors
- UV-curable inkjet printing
- High quality 3D printing that can create products that are delicate, extremely precise, and incredibly realistic
- To improve durability of fragile, thin, and delicate arteries, veins or vessels, a clear support material is printed in key areas. This makes the models robust so they can be handled by students easily.