At the forefront of medicine and technology, we are proud to offer these incredible, uncompromised replicas of human anatomy. Using the latest 3D printing technology and materials available, this model is an exact replica of a human cadaver, brought to "life" by extensive medical scanning and manufacturing technologies. Over are the days of using ethically questionable cadavers, the mess of hazardous preservation chemicals, and the inaccuracies of plastinated models that often over-enhance anatomy for display, not realism. See the future, and the beauty, of real human anatomy with these incredible anatomical replicas!
This 3D printed male left pelvis and proximal thigh (sectioned through the midsagittal plane in the midline and transversely through the L3/4 intervertebral disc) shows superficial and deep structures of the true and false pelves, inguinal and femoral region. In the transverse section, the epaxial musculature, abdominal wall musculature (rectus abdominis, external and internal abdominal obliques, transversus abdominis), psoas major and quadratus lumborum are visible and separated from each other and the superficial fat by fascial layers such as the rectus sheath and the thoracolumbar fascia. The psoas major muscle lies lateral to the external iliac artery, with the left testicular artery and vein lying on its superficial surface. More laterally (and moving inferiorly), the ilioinguinal nerve, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh and the femoral nerve are positioned over the superficial surface of the iliacus muscle.
The left common iliac artery bifurcates at the level of the sacral promontory into the external and internal iliac arteries. This specimen does not possess a clearly defined anterior and posterior division of the internal iliac artery; instead, the terminal arteries sequentially radiate from the internal iliac. The lateral sacral, inferior rectal, inferior gluteal, internal pudendal, superior vesical, obturator and umbilical arteries (which terminates in the medial umbilical ligament) are visible adjacent to the sacral ventral rami. The inferior gluteal and internal pudendal arteries have not bifurcated in this view and track inferiorly over piriformis.
The deep circumflex iliac artery and vein can be seen passing deep posterior to the inguinal ligament, while the branches from the inferior epigastric artery and veins can be seen perforating rectus abdominis and the overlying rectus sheath. The left common iliac vein lies deep to the left common iliac artery; the obturator branch and the external iliac vein have been preserved.
In the midline the pubic symphysis and sagittal sections of the pelvic viscera are visible: from anterior to posterior, the bladder (receiving the left ureter, which passes over the iliac vessels at the level of the pelvic brim), the left seminal vesicles and vas deferens, and rectum (with surrounding external anal sphincter muscle). The pathway of the urethra is visible from the inferior pole of the bladder through the prostate gland, pelvic diaphragm and the corpus spongiosum of the penis. Inferior to the sectioned erectile bodies (corpus cavernosa and corpus spongiosum) lies the scrotum, where the skin has been removed to reveal the parietal tunica vaginalis.
On the preserved proximal thigh the fascia lata has been removed to highlight the transition of the neurovasculature and musculature from the pelvic region. Superior to the inguinal ligament a window has been cut to reveal the underlying aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis muscle. From medial to lateral, the femoral vein and artery have been removed from the femoral sheath, and the termination of the femoral nerve lies superficial to the iliopsoas muscle. The great saphenous vein can be seen coursing medially over the pectineus, adductor longus and gracilis muscles, while branches of the femoral nerve pass over the profunda femoris artery. The thigh musculature is visible, with the cut sartorius muscle overlying the iliacus muscles and the origins of anterior thigh muscles (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis). The tensor fasciae latae can be seen inserting on the anterior border of the iliotibial tract, which extends over the lateral surface of the thigh. A window has been cut to expose the underlying gluteus medius muscle, which terminates at the lateral aspect of the greater trochanter.
Please Note: Thanks to the flexibility of manufacturing that 3D Printing offers, this model is "printed to order", and is not typically available for immediate shipment. Most models are printed within 15 working days and arrive within 3-5 weeks of ordering, and once an order is submitted to us, it cannot be canceled or altered. Please contact us if you have specific a specific delivery date requirement, and we will do our best to deliver the model by your target date.
Advantages of 3D Printed Anatomical Models
- 3D printed anatomical models are the most anatomically accurate examples of human anatomy because they are based on real human specimens.
- Avoid the ethical complications and complex handling, storage, and documentation requirements with 3D printed models when compared to human cadaveric specimens.
- 3D printed anatomy models are far less expensive than real human cadaveric specimens.
- Reproducibility and consistency allow for standardization of education and faster availability of models when you need them.
- Customization options are available for specific applications or educational needs. Enlargement, highlighting of specific anatomical structures, cutaway views, and more are just some of the customizations available.
Disadvantages of Human Cadavers
- Access to cadavers can be problematic and ethical complications are hard to avoid. Many countries cannot access cadavers for cultural and religious reasons.
- Human cadavers are costly to procure and require expensive storage facilities and dedicated staff to maintain them. Maintenance of the facility alone is costly.
- The cost to develop a cadaver lab or plastination technique is extremely high. Those funds could purchase hundreds of easy to handle, realistic 3D printed anatomical replicas.
- Wet specimens cannot be used in uncertified labs. Certification is expensive and time-consuming.
- Exposure to preservation fluids and chemicals is known to cause long-term health problems for lab workers and students. 3D printed anatomical replicas are safe to handle without any special equipment.
- Lack of reuse and reproducibility. If a dissection mistake is made, a new specimen has to be used and students have to start all over again.
Disadvantages of Plastinated Specimens
- Like real human cadaveric specimens, plastinated models are extremely expensive.
- Plastinated specimens still require real human samples and pose the same ethical issues as real human cadavers.
- The plastination process is extensive and takes months or longer to complete. 3D printed human anatomical models are available in a fraction of the time.
- Plastinated models, like human cadavers, are one of a kind and can only showcase one presentation of human anatomy.
Advanced 3D Printing Techniques for Superior Results
- Vibrant color offering with 10 million colors
- UV-curable inkjet printing
- High quality 3D printing that can create products that are delicate, extremely precise, and incredibly realistic
- To improve durability of fragile, thin, and delicate arteries, veins or vessels, a clear support material is printed in key areas. This makes the models robust so they can be handled by students easily.