This 3D model presents a deep dissection and isolation of the pelvis from surrounding regions, particularly demonstrating visceral and neurovascular structures relative to deep ligaments and osseous features.
Within the false pelvis, the sigmoid colon descends on the left side of the specimen to the rectum, passing superficially across the pelvic brim and the passage of the common and external iliac artery and vein. Adjacent to the sigmoid colon are parts of the sigmoid arteries and superior rectal artery, resting superficial to the common iliac vessels and near the descending ureter. Anterior in the true pelvis is the collapsed urinary bladder, and between the bladder and rectum rests the uterus. The organ is partially covered in the broad ligament, with both the suspensory ligament of the ovary and round ligament have been separated and pulled away from the peritoneum on both sides to expose surrounding blood vessels. While the ovarian ligaments, round ligaments, uterine tubes and ovaries are trapped within the peritoneal fold of the broad ligament, the reduction in ovary size (common with advanced age) has rendered these indistinguishable in the model.
Lateral to these organs, branches of the internal iliac artery can be identified as well as a retained median sacral artery in the midline between the two common iliac arteries. On the left side only the uterine artery can be seen laterally. On the right side, the obturator, superior vesical, and uterine arteries can be observed. In addition, the origins of the inferior epigastric artery and vein can be seen arising from the external iliac vessels just prior to exiting the inferior abdominal cavity.
On the right side of the preserved pelvis, the entire femur and thigh musculature has been removed to demonstrate the obturator membrane, the articular cartilage of the acetabulum and the transverse ligament of the acetabulum. Posteriorly the entire gluteal region has been dissected to expose the superior gluteal foramen and the origin of the superior gluteal artery. The sacrotuberous ligament has been removed to demonstrate the sacrospinous ligament, with some branches of the inferior rectal artery retained within the exposed ischioanal fossa.
On the left side of the preserved pelvis the sciatic nerve has been maintained within the greater sciatic foramen, as has the sacrotuberous ligament. The ischioanal fossa mirrors that of the right side, where branches of the inferior rectal artery have been retained relative to the fibers of the pelvic diaphragm, and the integration of the external anal sphincter on the projecting external rectal surface.
Advantages of 3D Printed Anatomical Models
- 3D printed anatomical models are the most anatomically accurate examples of human anatomy because they are based on real human specimens.
- Avoid the ethical complications and complex handling, storage, and documentation requirements with 3D printed models when compared to human cadaveric specimens.
- 3D printed anatomy models are far less expensive than real human cadaveric specimens.
- Reproducibility and consistency allow for standardization of education and faster availability of models when you need them.
- Customization options are available for specific applications or educational needs. Enlargement, highlighting of specific anatomical structures, cutaway views, and more are just some of the customizations available.
Disadvantages of Human Cadavers
- Access to cadavers can be problematic and ethical complications are hard to avoid. Many countries cannot access cadavers for cultural and religious reasons.
- Human cadavers are costly to procure and require expensive storage facilities and dedicated staff to maintain them. Maintenance of the facility alone is costly.
- The cost to develop a cadaver lab or plastination technique is extremely high. Those funds could purchase hundreds of easy to handle, realistic 3D printed anatomical replicas.
- Wet specimens cannot be used in uncertified labs. Certification is expensive and time-consuming.
- Exposure to preservation fluids and chemicals is known to cause long-term health problems for lab workers and students. 3D printed anatomical replicas are safe to handle without any special equipment.
- Lack of reuse and reproducibility. If a dissection mistake is made, a new specimen has to be used and students have to start all over again.
Disadvantages of Plastinated Specimens
- Like real human cadaveric specimens, plastinated models are extremely expensive.
- Plastinated specimens still require real human samples and pose the same ethical issues as real human cadavers.
- The plastination process is extensive and takes months or longer to complete. 3D printed human anatomical models are available in a fraction of the time.
- Plastinated models, like human cadavers, are one of a kind and can only showcase one presentation of human anatomy.
Advanced 3D Printing Techniques for Superior Results
- Vibrant color offering with 10 million colors
- UV-curable inkjet printing
- High quality 3D printing that can create products that are delicate, extremely precise, and incredibly realistic
- To improve durability of fragile, thin, and delicate arteries, veins or vessels, a clear support material is printed in key areas. This makes the models robust so they can be handled by students easily.