Developed from real patient case study specimens, the 3D printed anatomy model pathology series introduces an unmatched level of realism in human anatomy models. Each 3D printed anatomy model is a high-fidelity replica of a human cadaveric specimen, focusing on the key morbidity presentations that led to the deceasement of the patient. With advances in 3D printing materials and techniques, these stories can come to life in an ethical, consistently reproduceable, and easy to handle format. Ideal for the most advanced anatomical and pathological study, and backed by authentic case study details, students, instructors, and experts alike will discover a new level of anatomical study with the 3D printed anatomy model pathology series.
A 45-year old male presented with a lump in his left supraclavicular area. The swelling had been increasing in size over 6 months. Excision biopsy of the lump showed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Ten months later he was readmitted with left shoulder pain and swelling of his left arm. Examination revealed generalized lymphadenopathy with significant swelling in his left supraclavicular and axillary regions. He was treated with radiotherapy and Thiotepa chemotherapy. He developed vomiting. A subsequent barium meal showed duodenal obstruction from extrinsic lymph node compression. He continued to deteriorate and died 2 weeks after readmission.
The 3D print shows the tracheal bifurcation with adjacent para-tracheal and peri-bronchial lymph nodes. The trachea has been opened longitudinally and is viewed from behind. The para-tracheal lymph nodes are pale and matted (fused) together. Similar abnormal tissue is seen as a confluent pale mass on the left side of the trachea, above the aortic arch, which is seen cut in cross-section as a void space with branches arising. The peri-bronchial lymph nodes are also enlarged, and contain carbon pigment. The circumscribed small paler areas in the lymph nodes and extra-nodal tumor are foci of necrosis. There is an atheroma in the wall of the aorta but it is difficult to see in the 3D print.
Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) is a malignancy of lymphocytes. It is characterized by the presence of neoplastic giant cells called Reed Sternberg cells. There are 5 main subtypes according to the WHO Lymphoma Classification, based on the morphology, immunophenotyping and genetics. Activation of the transcription factor NF-kB is a common pathway of tumorigenesis among the subtypes. This promotes proliferation, reduces apoptosis, and induces expression of cytokines that recruit the immune cells that surround Reed Sternberg cells in HL.
There is a bimodal age distribution with a peak in late adolescence/early adulthood and a second peak in older adults. HL accounts for just under 1% of all cancers worldwide. Infection with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) contributes to the pathogenesis of the main subtypes of HL. The viral genome causes genetic alterations that lead to aberrant signal pathways, although the precise mechanism is not known. Immunosuppression (e.g. HIV infection or post- organ transplant) and positive HL family history are also risk factors. HL commonly presents as painless lymphadenopathy, pruritus, weight loss, fevers and night sweats. Later disease sees organ spread to the spleen, liver and bone marrow. Compressive symptoms can arise from enlargement of lymph nodes and infiltrated organs. HL is diagnosed with staging CT scan, excision biopsy of involved nodes and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment involves radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Although previously incurable, the overall survival of HL has improved significantly over the last 5 decades as a result of modern therapies: diagnosed at an early stage, it is almost 90%, and even later stage disease has a favorable prognosis.
Advantages of 3D Printed Anatomical Models
- 3D printed anatomical models are the most anatomically accurate examples of human anatomy because they are based on real human specimens.
- Avoid the ethical complications and complex handling, storage, and documentation requirements with 3D printed models when compared to human cadaveric specimens.
- 3D printed anatomy models are far less expensive than real human cadaveric specimens.
- Reproducibility and consistency allow for standardization of education and faster availability of models when you need them.
- Customization options are available for specific applications or educational needs. Enlargement, highlighting of specific anatomical structures, cutaway views, and more are just some of the customizations available.
Disadvantages of Human Cadavers
- Access to cadavers can be problematic and ethical complications are hard to avoid. Many countries cannot access cadavers for cultural and religious reasons.
- Human cadavers are costly to procure and require expensive storage facilities and dedicated staff to maintain them. Maintenance of the facility alone is costly.
- The cost to develop a cadaver lab or plastination technique is extremely high. Those funds could purchase hundreds of easy to handle, realistic 3D printed anatomical replicas.
- Wet specimens cannot be used in uncertified labs. Certification is expensive and time-consuming.
- Exposure to preservation fluids and chemicals is known to cause long-term health problems for lab workers and students. 3D printed anatomical replicas are safe to handle without any special equipment.
- Lack of reuse and reproducibility. If a dissection mistake is made, a new specimen has to be used and students have to start all over again.
Disadvantages of Plastinated Specimens
- Like real human cadaveric specimens, plastinated models are extremely expensive.
- Plastinated specimens still require real human samples and pose the same ethical issues as real human cadavers.
- The plastination process is extensive and takes months or longer to complete. 3D printed human anatomical models are available in a fraction of the time.
- Plastinated models, like human cadavers, are one of a kind and can only showcase one presentation of human anatomy.
Advanced 3D Printing Techniques for Superior Results
- Vibrant color offering with 10 million colors
- UV-curable inkjet printing
- High quality 3D printing that can create products that are delicate, extremely precise, and incredibly realistic
- To improve durability of fragile, thin, and delicate arteries, veins or vessels, a clear support material is printed in key areas. This makes the models robust so they can be handled by students easily.