Developed from real patient case study specimens, the 3D printed anatomy model pathology series introduces an unmatched level of realism in human anatomy models. Each 3D printed anatomy model is a high-fidelity replica of a human cadaveric specimen, focusing on the key morbidity presentations that led to the deceasement of the patient. With advances in 3D printing materials and techniques, these stories can come to life in an ethical, consistently reproduceable, and easy to handle format. Ideal for the most advanced anatomical and pathological study, and backed by authentic case study details, students, instructors, and experts alike will discover a new level of anatomical study with the 3D printed anatomy model pathology series.
A 68-year-old female presented with recent onset of seizures and was diagnosed with epilepsy. Collateral history revealed a gradual change in the patient's personality. She subsequently died several months later from a myocardial infarction.
This brain specimen has been sliced horizontally. A well-circumscribed 6cm tumor is evident in between the two frontal lobes. The tumor is compressing the frontal lobes. It has a pinkish cut surface with some yellow areas indicating necrosis. It was attached to the dura mater anteriorly. This is an example of a meningioma.
Meningiomas are often said to be the most common tumors of the central nervous system (CNS); however, in fact they arise in the meninges (dura, arachnoid and pia), which are strictly speaking not part of the CNS per se. They arise from arachnoid cells closely associated with the dura; hence, these tumors can be associated with the dura or dural folds (falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli). Meningiomas are predominantly slow growing benign tumors. Symptoms are determined by the tumor location and the speed of growth. Symptoms include seizures, change of mental state, vision, hearing- or smell alterations, and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Meningiomas are frequently asymptomatic. Treatment includes observation, surgery or radiotherapy, depending on the clinical context and tumor morphology.
Meningiomas are rare in children with a median age of 65 years at diagnosis. There is a 3:2 female predominance. Exposure to ionizing radiation, including cranial radiotherapy, increases the risk of development meningiomas. The greatest genetic predisposition for development is seen in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). NF2 is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the NF2 gene on Chromosome 22 leading to multiple tumors associated with the nervous system.
Advantages of 3D Printed Anatomical Models
- 3D printed anatomical models are the most anatomically accurate examples of human anatomy because they are based on real human specimens.
- Avoid the ethical complications and complex handling, storage, and documentation requirements with 3D printed models when compared to human cadaveric specimens.
- 3D printed anatomy models are far less expensive than real human cadaveric specimens.
- Reproducibility and consistency allow for standardization of education and faster availability of models when you need them.
- Customization options are available for specific applications or educational needs. Enlargement, highlighting of specific anatomical structures, cutaway views, and more are just some of the customizations available.
Disadvantages of Human Cadavers
- Access to cadavers can be problematic and ethical complications are hard to avoid. Many countries cannot access cadavers for cultural and religious reasons.
- Human cadavers are costly to procure and require expensive storage facilities and dedicated staff to maintain them. Maintenance of the facility alone is costly.
- The cost to develop a cadaver lab or plastination technique is extremely high. Those funds could purchase hundreds of easy to handle, realistic 3D printed anatomical replicas.
- Wet specimens cannot be used in uncertified labs. Certification is expensive and time-consuming.
- Exposure to preservation fluids and chemicals is known to cause long-term health problems for lab workers and students. 3D printed anatomical replicas are safe to handle without any special equipment.
- Lack of reuse and reproducibility. If a dissection mistake is made, a new specimen has to be used and students have to start all over again.
Disadvantages of Plastinated Specimens
- Like real human cadaveric specimens, plastinated models are extremely expensive.
- Plastinated specimens still require real human samples and pose the same ethical issues as real human cadavers.
- The plastination process is extensive and takes months or longer to complete. 3D printed human anatomical models are available in a fraction of the time.
- Plastinated models, like human cadavers, are one of a kind and can only showcase one presentation of human anatomy.
Advanced 3D Printing Techniques for Superior Results
- Vibrant color offering with 10 million colors
- UV-curable inkjet printing
- High quality 3D printing that can create products that are delicate, extremely precise, and incredibly realistic
- To improve durability of fragile, thin, and delicate arteries, veins or vessels, a clear support material is printed in key areas. This makes the models robust so they can be handled by students easily.