At the forefront of medicine and technology, we are proud to offer these incredible, uncompromised replicas of human anatomy. Using the latest 3D printing technology and materials available, this model is an exact replica of a human cadaver, brought to "life" by extensive medical scanning and manufacturing technologies. Over are the days of using ethically questionable cadavers, the mess of hazardous preservation chemicals, and the inaccuracies of plastinated models that often over-enhance anatomy for display, not realism. See the future, and the beauty, of real human anatomy with these incredible anatomical replicas!
This 3D printed specimen presents a unique view of axial anatomy, presenting a dorsal deep dissection of the head, neck, axillae, thorax, abdomen, and gluteal regions. The removal of the posterior portions of the cranium and laminectomy from the cervical region to the opening of the sacral canal affords a continuous view of the central nervous system structures and origin of the segmental nerves relative to other axillary and appendicular structures.
In the cranium the two cerebral hemispheres are exposed in coronal section, separated by a falx cerebri that preserves the superior sagittal sinus, and supported by a partial tentorium cerebelli. The cerebellum has been removed and along the lateral margins, the sigmoid sinus has been opened. This exposes the fourth ventricle, pons and medulla oblongata, posterior inferior cerebellar arteries, and cranial nerves (CN VII - XII) arising from these brainstem structures.
Inferior to the cranium, the posterior cervical portion of the spinal cord is exposed through deep dissection and laminectomies (with the exception of the posterior arch of the atlas). At this level of dissection, the vertebral arteries can be observed ascending through the vertebral foramina and curving anteriorly on the superior surface of the atlas towards the foramen magnum. The roots of the cervical and brachial plexus are exposed, resting on the scalene musculature, cervical vasculature (common carotid artery on the right, internal jugular and common carotid on the left) and sternocleidomastoid muscles and can be traced anteriorly towards the margins of the dissection. Removal of the scapulae (fully on the right, partially on the left) the more distal portions of the brachial plexus can be followed passing superior to the first ribs and into the axilla, with the cords, divisions and terminal branches surrounding the axillary arteries. On the left side, the musculature is largely removed (with parts of the deltoid, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles preserved) and the long thoracic nerve and lateral thoracic artery descend near the serratus anterior. The subscapular artery is shown dividing into the circumflex scapular artery (passing to the triangular space) and the root of the thoracodorsal artery. On the right side, the more full removal of the scapula affords a view of the brachial plexus structures and the passage of the axillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral artery laterally towards the surgical neck of the humerus.
In the midline of the thorax the spinal cord is exposed through both laminectomy and dissection of the dura mater. The dorsal roots and rootlets of the mixed spinal nerves are exposed and pass laterally to the dorsal root ganglia (enclosed within dura). On the right side the thoracic mixed spinal nerves and the posterior thoracic musculoskeletal wall has been removed (from the 2nd rib to the level of the 11th and 12th ribs ) to expose the posterior surface of the lung and the posterior diaphragm. On the left side, most of the posterior thoracic wall has been removed, but the 3rd-5th ribs are retained to demonstrate the external intercostal musculature and the position of the 5th intercostal nerve within the space. In addition, the full sequence of intercostal nerves has been retained.
Inferiorly, the lumbar vertebrae and posterior dura mater have also been opened posteriorly to expose the conus medullaris and cauda equina through to the sacral region. On the right side, adjacent to the 12th ribs, the quadratus lumborum has been removed such that the subcostal and lumbar nerves rest against the perirenal fat capsule and psoas muscle. On the left side, the subcostal nerve arcs across an opened peritoneal cavity and the exposed kidney and loops of the jejenum.
The deep plane of dissection on both sides extends into the gluteal region, where the gluteus maximus muscle has been removed to expose the lateral rotators and neurovascular structures; as well as the musculature of the pelvic floor in the midline. On the left side, the gluteus medius is intact and the superior gluteal artery and nerve pass into the region just superior to the piriformis muscle. Inferior to the piriformis muscle, parts of the inferior gluteal artery and nerve, and the internal pudendal artery and pudendal nerve are preserved near the sacrotuberous ligament. The sciatic nerve passes distally through the space across the surface of the lateral rotators (e.g., superior and inferior gemelli muscles, obturator internus, quadratus femoris) into the posterior compartment of the thigh near the hamstring group. On the right side, removal of the gluteus medius and a deeper dissection into the true pelvis has exposed the lumbar and sacral plexuses and derivative nerves. This body replica comes on a transparent plexiglass base
Please Note: Thanks to the flexibility of manufacturing that 3D Printing offers, this model is "printed to order", and is not typically available for immediate shipment. Most models are printed within 15 working days and arrive within 3-5 weeks of ordering, and once an order is submitted to us, it cannot be canceled or altered. Please contact us if you have specific a specific delivery date requirement, and we will do our best to deliver the model by your target date.
Advantages of 3D Printed Anatomical Models
- 3D printed anatomical models are the most anatomically accurate examples of human anatomy because they are based on real human specimens.
- Avoid the ethical complications and complex handling, storage, and documentation requirements with 3D printed models when compared to human cadaveric specimens.
- 3D printed anatomy models are far less expensive than real human cadaveric specimens.
- Reproducibility and consistency allow for standardization of education and faster availability of models when you need them.
- Customization options are available for specific applications or educational needs. Enlargement, highlighting of specific anatomical structures, cutaway views, and more are just some of the customizations available.
Disadvantages of Human Cadavers
- Access to cadavers can be problematic and ethical complications are hard to avoid. Many countries cannot access cadavers for cultural and religious reasons.
- Human cadavers are costly to procure and require expensive storage facilities and dedicated staff to maintain them. Maintenance of the facility alone is costly.
- The cost to develop a cadaver lab or plastination technique is extremely high. Those funds could purchase hundreds of easy to handle, realistic 3D printed anatomical replicas.
- Wet specimens cannot be used in uncertified labs. Certification is expensive and time-consuming.
- Exposure to preservation fluids and chemicals is known to cause long-term health problems for lab workers and students. 3D printed anatomical replicas are safe to handle without any special equipment.
- Lack of reuse and reproducibility. If a dissection mistake is made, a new specimen has to be used and students have to start all over again.
Disadvantages of Plastinated Specimens
- Like real human cadaveric specimens, plastinated models are extremely expensive.
- Plastinated specimens still require real human samples and pose the same ethical issues as real human cadavers.
- The plastination process is extensive and takes months or longer to complete. 3D printed human anatomical models are available in a fraction of the time.
- Plastinated models, like human cadavers, are one of a kind and can only showcase one presentation of human anatomy.
Advanced 3D Printing Techniques for Superior Results
- Vibrant color offering with 10 million colors
- UV-curable inkjet printing
- High quality 3D printing that can create products that are delicate, extremely precise, and incredibly realistic
- To improve durability of fragile, thin, and delicate arteries, veins or vessels, a clear support material is printed in key areas. This makes the models robust so they can be handled by students easily.