Developed from real patient case study specimens, the 3D printed anatomy model pathology series introduces an unmatched level of realism in human anatomy models. Each 3D printed anatomy model is a high-fidelity replica of a human cadaveric specimen, focusing on the key morbidity presentations that led to the deceasement of the patient. With advances in 3D printing materials and techniques, these stories can come to life in an ethical, consistently reproduceable, and easy to handle format. Ideal for the most advanced anatomical and pathological study, and backed by authentic case study details, students, instructors, and experts alike will discover a new level of anatomical study with the 3D printed anatomy model pathology series.
A 50-year-old alcoholic was admitted with a 2-week history of weakness and shortness of breath. At the onset of the illness he reported a productive cough, chest pain and blood-stained sputum. Examination revealed a febrile, cyanosed, drowsy man with grunting respiration. A friction rub was present over the right lower lobe. The remainder of the examination was unremarkable. The patient steadily deteriorated and on the morning of his death, a lumbar puncture was performed. Green opalescent fluid was obtained. A blood culture grew Streptococcus pneumoniae.
This specimen is an example of ventriculitis, with pneumococcal meningitis and right basal pneumonia also being found at autopsy. The horizontal slice through both cerebral hemispheres displays both of the lateral ventricles. The ventricles show a thickened, rough ependymal lining with cellular debris accumulation around the choroid plexus and also in the anterior horn. The lower surface shows similar changes and also displays the normal arrangement of the caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus and internal capsule.
Histology demonstrated extensive infiltration of neutrophils in the sub-arachnoid space as well as multifocal severe (sub)endothelial infiltration with obstruction of vascular lumen and involvement of the blood vessel walls. The inflammation extended into the cerebral parenchyma causing hemorrhage and necrosis.
Ventriculitis is an uncommon complication of intracranial infection. In adults, it more commonly occurs as a secondary complication of surgical intervention / instrumentation or trauma, rather than from primary community-acquired meningitis. In these cases, causative organisms are similar to other nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections, in particular staphylococci or resistant Gram-negative bacilli. Neonates aged less than 6 months have a higher incidence of ventricular infection. Presentation may be more subtle than in bacterial meningitis or may be as obstructive hydrocephalus, secondary to resulting aqueductal obstruction. Diagnosis is dependent on laboratory CSF testing and imaging, in particular using CT scans and MRI. Prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy is a mainstay of treatment with consideration to achieving effective concentrations in CSF and brain tissue.
Advantages of 3D Printed Anatomical Models
- 3D printed anatomical models are the most anatomically accurate examples of human anatomy because they are based on real human specimens.
- Avoid the ethical complications and complex handling, storage, and documentation requirements with 3D printed models when compared to human cadaveric specimens.
- 3D printed anatomy models are far less expensive than real human cadaveric specimens.
- Reproducibility and consistency allow for standardization of education and faster availability of models when you need them.
- Customization options are available for specific applications or educational needs. Enlargement, highlighting of specific anatomical structures, cutaway views, and more are just some of the customizations available.
Disadvantages of Human Cadavers
- Access to cadavers can be problematic and ethical complications are hard to avoid. Many countries cannot access cadavers for cultural and religious reasons.
- Human cadavers are costly to procure and require expensive storage facilities and dedicated staff to maintain them. Maintenance of the facility alone is costly.
- The cost to develop a cadaver lab or plastination technique is extremely high. Those funds could purchase hundreds of easy to handle, realistic 3D printed anatomical replicas.
- Wet specimens cannot be used in uncertified labs. Certification is expensive and time-consuming.
- Exposure to preservation fluids and chemicals is known to cause long-term health problems for lab workers and students. 3D printed anatomical replicas are safe to handle without any special equipment.
- Lack of reuse and reproducibility. If a dissection mistake is made, a new specimen has to be used and students have to start all over again.
Disadvantages of Plastinated Specimens
- Like real human cadaveric specimens, plastinated models are extremely expensive.
- Plastinated specimens still require real human samples and pose the same ethical issues as real human cadavers.
- The plastination process is extensive and takes months or longer to complete. 3D printed human anatomical models are available in a fraction of the time.
- Plastinated models, like human cadavers, are one of a kind and can only showcase one presentation of human anatomy.
Advanced 3D Printing Techniques for Superior Results
- Vibrant color offering with 10 million colors
- UV-curable inkjet printing
- High quality 3D printing that can create products that are delicate, extremely precise, and incredibly realistic
- To improve durability of fragile, thin, and delicate arteries, veins or vessels, a clear support material is printed in key areas. This makes the models robust so they can be handled by students easily.