Developed from real patient case study specimens, the 3D printed anatomy model pathology series introduces an unmatched level of realism in human anatomy models. Each 3D printed anatomy model is a high-fidelity replica of a human cadaveric specimen, focusing on the key morbidity presentations that led to the deceasement of the patient. With advances in 3D printing materials and techniques, these stories can come to life in an ethical, consistently reproduceable, and easy to handle format. Ideal for the most advanced anatomical and pathological study, and backed by authentic case study details, students, instructors, and experts alike will discover a new level of anatomical study with the 3D printed anatomy model pathology series.
This was a case of a 75-year-old female who presented with symptoms of recurrent disease and confirmed to have chemo-resistant multiple retroperitoneal lymph node metastases five years after the initial therapy for stage IIIc serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) revealed the involvement of para-aortic nodes and pelvic nodes. She died of liver complications before therapeutic options, such as radical lymphadenectomy, could be considered.
The specimen consists of the abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries surrounded by large numbers of extremely enlarged iliac nodes para-aortic lymph nodes. Histopathological examination revealed metastatic high-grade adenocarcinoma in some of the resected lymph nodes.
Occasionally, lymph node metastases represent the only component at the time of recurrence of ovarian cancer. In this case, the metastatic nodes predicted by PET/CT completely corresponded to the actual metastatic nodes. Ultrasound (US) could equally have confirmed the presence of such large lymph nodes. PET/CT or US often fails to identify microscopic disease in histopathologically-proven positive nodes. Therefore, it is difficult to reliably exclude lymph node metastases during surveillance following initial surgery for ovarian cancer.
In the context of a recurrent ovarian disease, systematic aortic and pelvic node dissection would be considered appropriate in younger women with no other evidence of metastatic disease. This is unlikely to be curative but may produce palliation with symptom control and allow for the trial of novel therapies if available.
More commonly, sampling of pelvic and aortic lymph nodes is part of the formal surgical staging of epithelial ovarian cancer at the time of initial surgical treatment. In addition, in women presenting initially with advanced stage ovarian cancer, systematic debulking of enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes will be considered if this leads to complete debulking of the tumor.
Advantages of 3D Printed Anatomical Models
- 3D printed anatomical models are the most anatomically accurate examples of human anatomy because they are based on real human specimens.
- Avoid the ethical complications and complex handling, storage, and documentation requirements with 3D printed models when compared to human cadaveric specimens.
- 3D printed anatomy models are far less expensive than real human cadaveric specimens.
- Reproducibility and consistency allow for standardization of education and faster availability of models when you need them.
- Customization options are available for specific applications or educational needs. Enlargement, highlighting of specific anatomical structures, cutaway views, and more are just some of the customizations available.
Disadvantages of Human Cadavers
- Access to cadavers can be problematic and ethical complications are hard to avoid. Many countries cannot access cadavers for cultural and religious reasons.
- Human cadavers are costly to procure and require expensive storage facilities and dedicated staff to maintain them. Maintenance of the facility alone is costly.
- The cost to develop a cadaver lab or plastination technique is extremely high. Those funds could purchase hundreds of easy to handle, realistic 3D printed anatomical replicas.
- Wet specimens cannot be used in uncertified labs. Certification is expensive and time-consuming.
- Exposure to preservation fluids and chemicals is known to cause long-term health problems for lab workers and students. 3D printed anatomical replicas are safe to handle without any special equipment.
- Lack of reuse and reproducibility. If a dissection mistake is made, a new specimen has to be used and students have to start all over again.
Disadvantages of Plastinated Specimens
- Like real human cadaveric specimens, plastinated models are extremely expensive.
- Plastinated specimens still require real human samples and pose the same ethical issues as real human cadavers.
- The plastination process is extensive and takes months or longer to complete. 3D printed human anatomical models are available in a fraction of the time.
- Plastinated models, like human cadavers, are one of a kind and can only showcase one presentation of human anatomy.
Advanced 3D Printing Techniques for Superior Results
- Vibrant color offering with 10 million colors
- UV-curable inkjet printing
- High quality 3D printing that can create products that are delicate, extremely precise, and incredibly realistic
- To improve durability of fragile, thin, and delicate arteries, veins or vessels, a clear support material is printed in key areas. This makes the models robust so they can be handled by students easily.